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太阳能吸附式制冷装置摘要

太阳能吸附式制冷装置摘要

每年到达地球表面的太阳辐射能为5.57×1018MJ,相当于190万亿吨标准煤,约为目前全世界一次能源消费总量的1.56×104倍。太阳能取之不尽,用之不竭,还具有清洁安全、无需开采和运输等优点。如能利用太阳能制冷,无疑非常有吸引力。但目前太阳能制冷的研究还远不如加热系统。其主要原因是技术和成本要求太高1)

吸附式制冷的优点吻合了当前能源和环境协调发展的总趋势。固体吸附式制冷可采用太阳能或余热等低品位热源作为驱动热源,不仅缓解电力的紧张供应和能源危机,而且能有效的利用大量的低品位热源。另外,吸附式制冷不采用氯氟烃类制冷剂,无CFCS问题,也无温室效应作用,是一种环境友好型制冷方式。从20世纪70年代中期以来,吸附式制冷受到重视研究不断深化。

与蒸气压缩式制冷系统相比,吸附式制冷具有结构简单,一次性投资少,运行费用低,使用寿命长,无噪音,无环境污染,能有效利用低品位热源等一系列优点;与吸收式制冷系统相比,吸附式制冷系统不存在结晶和分馏问题,且能用于震动,倾颠或旋转等场合。

两床连续型吸附式制冷系统主要由两部分组成。第一部分包括两个吸附床(解吸床和吸附床),两床的功能相当于传统制冷中的压缩机。解吸态床向冷凝器排放高温高压的制冷剂蒸气,吸附床则吸附蒸发器中低温低压的蒸气,使制冷剂蒸气在解吸床中不断蒸发制冷。因此吸附式制冷系统设计的核心是吸附床,它的性能好坏直接影响了整个系统的功能。第二部分包括冷凝器,蒸发器及流量调节阀,冷却水系统和冷冻水系统,与普通的制冷系统相类似。从解吸态床解吸出来的高温高压的制冷剂蒸气在冷凝器中被冷凝后,经过流量调节阀,变成低温低压的液体,进入蒸发器蒸发制冷,被蒸发的制冷剂蒸气重新被吸附态床吸收。

系统工作的循环动力由热源提供,冷却器的吸附热与冷凝器的冷凝排热向环境释放或回收利用,冷量从蒸发器中输出。

固体吸附制冷系统和其它制冷系统有所区别,根据吸附式制冷的特点,以些部件在设计时应作特别考虑,如吸附床的传热传质强化,蒸发器低蒸发压力下静压对蒸发温度的影响等。

 

 

 

abstract

Reach the earth superficial sun radiation energy 5.57 ×1018 MJ, equivalent to 190,000 billion tons of standard coal every year, Whole world one energy-consuming 1.56 ×104 of total amount at present about. Solar energy inexhaustible, have clean and safe needing exploit and transport merit. If can utilize solar energy to be refrigerated , undoubtedly very attractive. But the research that the solar energy refrigerates is still not so good as the system of heating far at present. Its main reason is that technology and cost are expected too much.

Identical total trend of present energy and environmental coordinated development of merit of absorbing type refrigeration. Solid person who absorb refrigeration can adopt solar energy or remaining energy low grade heat source as heat source of urging, Whether not only it alleviate supply and the energy crisis not tense of electric power ,but also can effective use grade heat source not low a large number of. In addition person who absorb refrigeration adopt the CFC refrigeration pharmaceutical , there is no CFCS issue, There is no greenhouse effects function , it is a kind of environment friendly refrigeration way. Since middle period of the seventies of the 20th century, person who absorb refrigeration been paid attention to being studied and deepened constantly.

Compared with compressing type refrigeration system of vapour, person who absorb refrigeration have structure to be simple, Lump-sum investment little, low to operate expenses, have long performance life, Have noise , have environmental pollution , can utilize low grade heat source,etc. a series of merits effectively; Compared with absorbing type refrigeration system, person who absorb refrigeration system have crystallization and fractional distillation question , Can use for and shake , incline crown of the head or occasion of rotating etc.

Two bed continuous type person who absorb refrigeration system made up of two parts mainly. The first part Including wave piece absorb bed, heater and cooler, like compressor of traditional refrigeration. Solve and suck attitude bed discharge high-temperature refrigeration pharmaceutical vapour of high pressure to condenser, absorb attitude bed absorb low temperature low-voltage vapour in the evaporimeter, Make the pharmaceutical vapour of refrigeration evaporate refrigeration constantly. So person who absorb refrigeration core that system design three absorb bed, performance quality of it influence whole function of system directly. Second part Including condenser, flow regulating valve and evaporimeter, on ordinary refrigeration being system similar . Suck attitude bed solve and suck high-temperature refrigeration pharmaceutical vapour of high pressure that come out among condenser the condensation solving, Through flow regulating valve, turn low temperature low-voltage liquid into , enter evaporimeter evaporate refrigeration, Absorb refrigeration pharmaceutical vapour of evaporation attitude bed absorb again.

Circulation power that system work offer by heat source, to absorb hot condensation in condenser arrange hot to releases or recycled to the environment cooler, The cold amount is exported from the evaporimeter .

Solid absorb refrigeration system and other refrigeration system distinguish to some extent, according to characteristic of refrigeration of absorbing etc., Should do and consider especially when design with some part , absorb heat transfer of bed spread quality strengthen, Evaporimeter low to evaporate pressure quiet to press to evaporate influence of temperature,etc..